【经济学人】英国脱欧后对渔业的影响|2017.07.30|总第957期

摘要: 导读据Intrafish报道,英国渔业行业表示,英国脱欧后,一旦英国退出共同渔业政策(CFP),那么爱尔兰渔

导读


据Intrafish报道,英国渔业行业表示,英国脱欧后,一旦英国退出共同渔业政策(CFP),那么爱尔兰渔获的海产品将不能全部脱销给欧洲市场。爱尔兰渔船与英国共同分享捕捞配额,比重占40%,与欧洲渔业委员会的关系也较为亲密。大部分有价值的捕捞配额来自鲭鱼和虾,然而,这些物种的配额很有可能在英国脱欧后被欧盟区要回。爱尔兰渔业生产商协会表示,目前,爱尔兰渔民支持对海洋环境实施保护,但弃鱼法案会对欧洲沿岸地区引发社会经济混乱等问题。

A spat about seafood shows the compromises that Brexit will force

一场关于海产品的争论暴露了英国脱欧面临的问题

Legally complex, hard to enforce and probably bad for Britain: fishing is a case study of the negotiations

在法律上非常复杂,并且难以实施,这对英国而言或许非常不利:捕鱼是谈判的一项案例研究

BRITAIN’S fishing industry is a tiddler, contributing less than 0.1% of GDP. But the island nation has great affection for its fleet. During last year’s Brexit referendum campaign, a flotilla of trawlermen steamed up the Thames to protest against European Union fishing quotas. On July 2nd Michael Gove, the Brexiteer environment secretary (who claims that his father’s Aberdeen fish business was sunk by EU rules), announced that Britain would “take back control” of its waters by unilaterally withdrawing from an international fishing treaty.

英国的捕鱼业是非常小众的一方面,对英国GDP的贡献不足0.1%,但是这个岛国对他的舰队有着很深厚的感情。在去年的脱欧公投之中,一群拖网渔船工人的小型舰队出现在泰晤士河上来抗议欧盟的捕鱼配额。7月2日,脱欧支持者的环境部长迈克尔·戈夫(他宣称他父亲的阿伯丁鱼类生意因欧盟的规定而受创)宣布,英国将通过单方面退出国际捕鱼公约来夺回其对水域的控制权。

  • Tiddler:n.小鱼,小孩

  • Fleet:n.舰队,港湾

  • Referendum:n.公民投票权,外交官请示书

  • Flotilla:n.小型舰队,小舰队

  • Unilaterally:adv.单方面地


Gutting such agreements is strongly supported by coastal communities. The pro-Brexit press cheered Mr Gove’s bold announcement. But landing a new deal for British fishermen will be legally complex, expensive to enforce, oblige Britain to observe European rules that it has had no hand in setting and, most likely, leave its businesses and consumers worse off than before. It is, in other words, a case study of the Brexit negotiations as a whole.

沿岸群众非常支持退出这类条约。支持脱欧的媒体对戈夫先生大胆的宣布大加赞扬。但是为英国渔民颁布一条新规定在法律上是非常复杂的,要付出高昂的代价,迫使英国去审视它曾无权置喙的欧盟制定的规定,而且也可能会使渔业和消费者们比以前更糟。也就是说,这是对英国脱欧谈判整体的一个案例研究。

  • Setting:n.环境

The EU’s Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) was drawn up before Britain joined, to its disadvantage. But membership has allowed Britain to improve the policy. Countries’ quotas are now set on a basis that is more scientific than political. Unwanted fish can no longer be discarded at sea, which has helped to reverse the depletion of stocks.

《欧盟通用渔业政策》(CFP)早在英国加入之前就已经制定出来了,这虽然令英国处于不利地位。但是会员的身份使得英国有权改进这项政策。现在每个国家的配额依据更多的是基于科学而不是政治。没人要的鱼不允许再被随意的丢进海里,这有助于扭转鱼类资源耗竭的问题。

  • Drawn up:草拟,拟定

  • Depletion:资源耗竭


Unpicking decades of tangled legal agreements will be harder than it looks. Mr Gove has initiated Britain’s withdrawal from the London Fisheries Convention. But Michel Barnier, the European Commission’s Brexit negotiator, argues that this 1964 agreement has since been superseded by the CFP. Regardless of these conventions, foreign fishermen may claim historic fishing rights going back decades or even centuries. Many of them have set up units in Britain to buy quotas from British fishermen. Unless the government overturns these property rights by decree, it may face a large compensation bill.

理清长达数十年间错综复杂的法律协议是很困难的。戈夫先生已经发动英国从伦敦渔业协会退会。但是欧盟委员会的英国脱欧谈判官米歇尔·巴尼耶认为1964年协议已经被CFP取代了。忽略这些公约的话,外国渔民可能会索要几十年甚至几个世纪以前的钓鱼权。他们中的许多人已经在英国建立起组织以买英国渔民手中的配额。除非政府通过法令废除这些财产权,否则它将会面临一大笔索赔。

  • Superseded:代替,废弃

  • Overturn:废除,废弃

In any case, Britain will find that, unless it is willing to continue sharing access to its waters, it will lose access to valuable foreign markets. Consider Norway, which as a non-EU member has control of its own waters. It nonetheless co-operates with the EU and other countries over fish quotas in 90% of them, in order to maintain its own fishermen’s access to fisheries inside the EU.

英国将会发现,无论如何它都会失去珍贵的国外市场,除非它愿意分享它的水域。想想挪威,对于自己的水域有控制权的非欧盟成员。为了维护本国渔民可以进入欧盟内部市场的权益,在90%的渔业配额上面它还是要和欧盟以及其他国家合作。



Of the 700,000 tonnes of fish landed in Britain each year, some 500,000 is exported, two-thirds of it to the EU. Without a mutual deal, which would surely include giving European fishermen some access to British waters, those exports would face World Trade Organisation tariffs averaging some 12%.(读者试译句) In the past the EU has responded to fishing disputes with Norway and the Faroe islands by banning all imports. British fishermen would soon find that, to borrow a phrase from the Brexiteers, “we need them more than they need us”.

 在英国,每年有七十万吨的鱼被打捞上岸,其中大约有五十万吨出口外国,三分之二发往欧盟。(期待您的翻译,明天会有针对这句话的长难句解析哟~)在过去,欧盟会禁止一切进口来应对与挪威和法罗群岛的渔业争端。英国渔民很快就会发现,借用脱欧支持者的话,“比起他们需要我们,我们更需要他们”。


Consumers would notice, too, since most of the fish on British dinner plates is imported. A third of it comes from the EU, and British fishermen net about a sixth of their total catch in French, Belgian, Dutch, Danish or Irish waters.

消费者也会注意到的,因为英国人餐盘里的鱼大多数都是进口的。其中三分之一来自于欧盟,英国渔民的渔网捕获的水产有大约六分之一来自于法国、比利时、荷兰、丹麦或爱尔兰的水域。



Britons may decide that they are willing to pay higher prices for the privilege of banning foreign vessels from British waters. But such a rule would have to be enforced, at extra cost. The “cod wars” with Iceland in the 1950s-70s saw gunboats deployed to protect fisheries. Some Brexiteers would doubtless enjoy such a muscular exertion of sovereignty. But for ordinary Britons who, since the referendum, have endured a squeeze on incomes comparable to that during the financial crisis of 2008, the fishing industry is a distraction. The aviation business is bracing for a hard exit (see page 56). The finance industry, which contributes 7% of GDP, is in danger of decamping (see page 63). Britain’s Brexit negotiators have bigger fish to fry.

英国人可能决定他们愿意取得在英国水域禁止外国船只的特权,并为之支付更高的代价。但是这样的法规将不得不付出额外成本强制推行。在二十世纪五十年代到七十年代,英国与冰岛的“鳕鱼战争”时,炮艇曾被部署用于保护渔业。一些脱欧者无疑喜欢这样展示主权国家的肌肉。但是对于普通英国人来说,公投后他们已经忍受着几乎与2008年金融危机期间一样程度的收入下降了,所以渔业问题是在转移视线。航空工业正在准备应对退出后面临的难关(见56页)。金融行业虽然贡献了7%的GDP,但是却存在撤出的风险(见63页)。英国的脱欧谈判官有更重要的事要做。

  • have bigger fish to fry 有更重要的事要做


翻译 ▍陌上,Bibobibo,下罗小柜员

审核 ▍白夜叉

图文编辑 ▍且听风吟

责任编辑 ▍毛毛

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Without a mutual deal, which would surely include giving European fishermen some access to British waters, those exports would face World Trade Organisation tariffs averaging some 12%.

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